Public co-operation “means an entity that is created by the state to carry out public missions and services. In order to carry out these public missions and services, a public co-operation participates in activities or provides services that are also provided by private enterprise. A public co-operation is granted increased operating flexibility in order to best ensure its success, while retaining principles of public accountability and fundamental public policy. The board of directors of a public co-operation is appointed by the Governor and confirmed by the Senate but is otherwise delegated the authority to set policy and manage the operations of the public co-operation.

Features of Public Co-operation:

Following are the salient features of a public co-operation:

(i) Special Statute:

A public co-operation is created by a special Act of the Parliament or the State Legislature. The Act defines its powers, objectives, functions and relations with the ministry and the Parliament (or State Legislature).

 (ii) Separate Legal Entity:

A public co-operation is a separate legal entity with perpetual succession and common seal. It has an existence, independent of the Government. It can own properly; can make contracts and file suits, in its own name.

 (iv) Financial Autonomy:

A public co-operation enjoys financial autonomy. It prepares its own budget; and has authority to retain and utilize its earnings for its business.

(v) Management by Board of Directors:

Its management is vested in a Board of Directors, appointed or nominated by the Government. But there is no Governmental interference in the day-to-day working of the co-operation.

(vi) Own Staff:

A publication co-operation  has its own staff; whose appointment, remuneration and service conditions are decided by the co-operation  itself.

(vii) Service Motive:

The main objective of a public co-operation is service-motive; though it is expected to the self-supporting and earn reasonable profits.

(viii) Public Accountability:

A public co-operation has to submit its annual report on its working. Its accounts are audited by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Annual report and audited accounts of a public co-operation are presented to the Parliament or State Legislatures, which is entitled to discuss these.

Advantages of Public Co-operation:

Following are the advantages of a public co-operation:

(i) Bold Management due to Operational Autonomy:

A public co-operation enjoys internal operational autonomy; as it is free from Governmental control. It can, therefore, run in a business-like manner. Management can take bold decisions involving experimentation in its lines of activities, taking advantage of business situations.

 (ii) Qualified and Contented Staff:

Public co-operation offers attractive service conditions to its staff. As such it is able to attract qualified staff. Because of qualified and contented staff, industrial relations problems are not much severe. Staff has a motivation to work hard for the co-operation.

(iv) Tailor-Made Statute:

The special Act, by which a public co-operation is created, can be tailor-made to meet the specific needs of the public co-operation; so that the co-operation can function in the best manner to achieve its objectives.

(v) Not Affected by Political Changes:

Being a distinct legal entity, a public co-operation is not much affected by political changes. It can maintain continuity of policy and operations.

(vi) Lesser Likelihood of Exploitation:

The Board of Directors of a public co-operation consists of representatives of various interest groups like labour, consumers etc. nominated by the Government. As such, there is lesser likelihood of exploitation of any class of society, by the public co-operation.

(vii) Reasonable Pricing Policy:

A public co-operation follows a reasonable pricing policy, based on cost-benefit analysis. Hence, public are generally satisfied with the provision of goods and services, by the public co-operation.


A public co-operation suffers from the following limitations:

(i) Autonomy and Flexibility, Only in Theory:

Autonomy and flexibility advantages of a public co-operation exist only in theory. In practice, there is a lot of interference in the working of a public co-operation by ministers, government officers and other politicians.

(ii) Misuse of Monopolistic Power:

Public co-operation is often enjoy monopoly in their field of operation. As such, on the one hand they are indifferent to consumer needs and problems; and on the other hand, often do not hesitate to exploit consumers.

(iii) Rigid Constitution:

The constitution of a public co-operation is very rigid. It cannot be changed, without amending the Statute of its formation. Hence, a public co-operation could not be flexible in its operations.

(iv) Low Managerial Efficiency:

Quite often civil servants, who do not possess management knowledge and skills, are appointed by the government on the Board of Directors, of a public co-operation . As such, managerial efficiency of public co-operation  is not as much as found in private business enterprises.

(v) Problem of Passing a Special Act:

A public co-operation cannot be formed without passing a special Act; which is a time consuming and difficult process. Hence, the scope for setting up public co-operation s is very restricted.

(vi) Clash of Divergent Interests:

In the Board of Directors of public co-operation, conflicts may arise among representatives of different groups. Such clashes tell upon the efficient functioning of the co-operation and may hamper its growth.


Civil service, the body of government officials who are employed in civil occupations that are neither political nor judicial. In most countries the term refers to employees selected and promoted on the basis of a merit and seniority system, which may include examinations.


Civil service Civil services in Nigeria are a natural extension of the executive arm of the government. The main goals of this power involve the provision of the population with the services they need: free medical care, free education, and so on. One of the main functions of the civil services in Nigeria is to make certain services free or, at least, affordable to people and to introduce services that don’t even exist yet. For example, owing to the civil services, pregnant women can deliver their babies free of charge in state hospitals, those who suffer from appendix inflammation can be operated for free or at reasonable prices, and so on. Features and functions of civil service One of the brightest examples of the introduction of inexistent services is the appearance of private telecommunication providers in the country.


Health care: – As it has already been said, one of the main responsibilities of Nigerian civil services is in the provision of health care aid to all the citizens. They are in charge of the creation of hospitals where people can receive the medical care they require. The department of civil services that’s currently in charge of the health care is the Ministry of Health. The officials and authorities who work in this ministry are supposed to provide the population with free or cheap medical services of the highest available quality.

Education: Another branch of the Nigerian civil services is responsible for the education. Its main responsibility is to provide each citizen of Nigeria with a high-quality education that’s either free or cheap enough to be affordable for everyone. The problem of illiteracy in rural regions of the country is still acute for Nigeria, especially now when the population is growing at a cosmic speed. The civil service that’s responsible for the education is the Ministry of Education. The ministry has a number of subdivisions that assist in the struggle for the education so the people always have a chance to communicate with representatives of the civil services on all the questions they are interested in and make all types of suggestions regarding the education in Nigeria.

Agricultural development:- Nigeria is a country with plenty of resources that need proper handling. Today, Nigeria is the seventh country in the world by the number of people who live there. The population is supposed to grow further in the nearest future. All this leads to the provision insufficiency. It’s quite strange to hear that Nigeria doesn’t have enough provision to feed all the people who live there. Still, this is how the things go now because the agricultural sector in the Nigerian economics needs development and forced growth. This is necessary to free Nigeria from the need to purchase food products from other countries at very high prices.

What is the Difference between Civil Service and Public Cooperation?

The main difference between civil service and Public Cooperation concerns the degree of responsibility and the different tasks given to the public and civil servants:

  1. Civil servants are top class employees managing key governmental duties with the aim of improving living conditions within the country and of ensuring the smooth delivery of all operational tasks. Conversely, Public Cooperation occupy lower places in the rank and perform simpler tasks;
  2. Public servants like police officers and firefighters have to undergo various trainings to learn how to master their tasks, but not all Public Cooperation need to be highly qualified or trained. Conversely, all civil servants must be highly qualified and need to have both educational and professional experience; and
  3. Civil service is performed by the most skilled individuals who obtain their job by passing several tests and exams and are only appointed on merit. Conversely, Public Cooperation can obtain their job by passing tests and interviews even if they do not have relevant educational or professional qualifications.



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“Imperial China: Civil Service Examinations” (PDF). Princeton University. Retrieved October 25, 2011.

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Paludan, Ann (1998). Chronicle of the Chinese Emperors: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial China. New York, New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05090-2

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