Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand’s toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication (such as by logos and trademarks), brand awareness, brand loyalty, and various branding (brand management) strategies. Many companies believe that there is often little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, and therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation.

Brand elements

Brands typically comprise various elements, such as:[

  • name: the word or words used to identify a company, product, service, or concept
  • logo: the visual trademark that identifies a brand
  • tagline or catchphrase: “The Quicker Picker Upper” is associated with Bounty paper towels
  • graphics: the “dynamic ribbon” is a trademarked part of Coca-Cola’s brand
  • shapes: the distinctive shapes of the Coca-Cola bottle and of the Volkswagen Beetle are trademarked elements of those brands
  • Colors: the instant recognition consumers have when they see Tiffany & Co.’s robin’s egg blue (Pantone No. 1837). Tiffany & Co.’s trademarked the color in 1998.
  • Sounds: a unique tune or set of notes can denote a brand. NBC’s chimes provide a famous example.
  • scents: the rose-jasmine-musk scent of Chanel No. 5 is trademarked
  • tastes: Kentucky Fried Chicken has trademarked its special recipe of eleven herbs and spices for fried chicken
  • movements: Lamborghini has trademarked the upward motion of its car doors


Brand names come in many styles.A few include:

  • initialism: a name made of initials, such as “UPS” or “IBM”
  • descriptive: names that describe a product benefit or function, such as “Whole Foods” or “Toys R’ Us”
  • alliteration and rhyme: names that are fun to say and which stick in the mind, such as “Reese’s Pieces” or “Dunkin’ Donuts”
  • evocative: names that can evoke a vivid image, such as “Amazon” or “Crest”
  • neologisms: completely made-up words, such as “Wii” or “Häagen-Dazs”
  • foreign word: adoption of a word from another language, such as “Volvo” or “Samsung”
  • founders’ names: using the names of real people, (especially a founder’s name), such as “Hewlett-Packard”, “Dell”, “Disney”, “Stussy” or “Mars”
  • geography: naming for regions and landmarks, such as “Cisco” or “Fuji Film”
  • personification: taking names from myths, such as “Nike”; or from the minds of ad execs, such as “Betty Crocker”
  • punny: some brands create their name by using a silly pun, such as “Lord of the Fries”, “Wok on Water” or “Eggs Eggscetera”
  • combination: combining multiple words together to create one, such as “Microsoft” (“micr Types of brand names
  • Brand names come in many styles.[91] A few include:
  • initialism: a name made of initials, such as “UPS” or “IBM”
  • descriptive: names that describe a product benefit or function, such as “Whole Foods” or “Toys R’ Us”
  • alliteration and rhyme: names that are fun to say and which stick in the mind, such as “Reese’s Pieces” or “Dunkin’ Donuts”
  • evocative: names that can evoke a vivid image, such as “Amazon” or “Crest”
  • neologisms: completely made-up words, such as “Wii” or “Häagen-Dazs”
  • foreign word: adoption of a word from another language, such as “Volvo” or “Samsung”
  • founders’ names: using the names of real people, (especially a founder’s name), such as “Hewlett-Packard”, “Dell”, “Disney”, “Stussy” or “Mars”
  • geography: naming for regions and landmarks, such as “Cisco” or “Fuji Film”
  • personification: taking names from myths, such as “Nike”; or from the minds of ad execs, such as “Betty Crocker”
  • punny: some brands create their name by using a silly pun, such as “Lord of the Fries”, “Wok on Water” or “Eggs Eggscetera”
  • combination: combining multiple words together to create one, such as “Microsoft” (“microcomputer” and “software”), “Comcast” (“communications” and “broadcast”), “Evernote” (“forever” and “note”), “Vodafone” (“voice”, “data”, “telephone”)


In pre-literate society, the distinctive shape of amphorae provided potential consumers with information about goods and quality. Pictured: Amphorae for wine and oil, Archaeological Museum, Dion.

Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding probably began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, and could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers, potters and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics. Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa, Asia and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE); large numbers of seals survive from the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley (3,300–1,300 BCE) where the local community depended heavily on trade; cylinder seals came into use in Ur in Mesopotamia in around 3,000 BCE and facilitated the labelling of goods and property; and the use of maker’s marks on pottery was commonplace in both ancient Greece and Rome Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were also used in ancient Egypt.


 United: Branding links your name, logo, online presence, product/services and appeal to the masses.

Sales: Speaking of sales, branding will create sales and revenue for your business.  You will make money based on how the branding marketing strategies work out. 

Preference: People are more attached to companies with a brand than companies that doesn’t.  Brands create a bond filled with good memories and good times, and customers will never forget it.

Loyalty: A good branding will create customer loyalty.  Loyal customers will continue to support you in good and bad times.  They will spread a positive message to people they know. 

Trust: As customers get to know your business they will begin to trust you.  In order to build trust you must give customers a reason to test you out.  The branding must be spot on as the first customers will determine how many more (or less) you will receive

Protection: Branding protects you from competitors who want your success.  Without it they will have no problem making copycats of what made you popular and claim it for themselves.  They can carry the same or similar products but they won’t be able to take your style and originality away



Haigh, Robert (18 February 2014). “Ferrari – The World’s Most Powerful Brand”. Brand Finance. Retrieved 9 February 2015.

American Marketing Association Dictionary. Retrieved 2011-06-29. The Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) endorses this definition as part of its ongoing Common Language in Marketing Project.

Foundations of Marketing. fahy& jobber. 2015.

Wheeler, H., The Miracle Of Man, London, Longacre, 1946, p. 84.

Ghodeswar, Bhimrao M (2008). “Building brand identity in competitive markets: A conceptual model”. Journal of Product & Brand Management. 17: 4. doi:10.1108/10610420810856468.

ranchhod, 2004

Keller, Kevin Lane (1993-01-01). “Conceptualizing, Measuring, and Managing Customer-Based Brand Equity”. Journal of Marketing. 57 (1): 1–22. doi:10.2307/1252054. JSTOR 1252054.

Webster’s ninth new collegiate dictionary, Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1983

“The Evolution of Branding”. Branding Irons Unlimited.

The branding of slaves. The Review of Arts, Literature, Philosophy and the Humanities

Khan, Saif Ullah; Mufti, Owais (2007). “The Hot History & Cold Future of Brands” (PDF). Journal of Managerial Sciences. 1 (1): 75–87.

Starcevic, Sladjana (2015). “The Origin and Historical Development of Branding and Advertising in the Old civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe”. Marketing. 46 (3): 179. doi:10.5937/markt1503179S.

Starcevic, Sladjana (2015). “The origin and historical development of branding and advertising in the old civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe”. Marketing. 46 (3): 179. doi:10.5937/markt1503179S.

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At independence on Oct 1, 1960, the various nationalists cum observers that either fought for or simple wished for the autonomy of Nigeria from her erstwhile masters had a lot of conjectures about the future of the country; how great it would be amidst vast natural and human resources and how it would favourably compete with nations of the world. They were so keen on assuming power since that was the only way to set Nigeria as a nation on her foot and that was the easiest way of unseating the heap-master that has hitherto denied the country the ability to fully realize its potentials and take its place in the continent. These nationalists saw bright days ahead where everything would be glorious, shining and perky!

Considering the abundant resources in the country and the amount of „heads‟ available, no way Nigeria after independence could not have survived and risen to be „African-Power‟- at least that was the dream. Whether it was a day-dream or not is a matter to be delved into soon. However, it is pertinent to state the underlying factors for such dream(s). After all,

Nigeria was already a major cocoa exporter, and world‟s largest exporter of palm oil coupled with crude oil- the black gold, that was already discovered in Oloibiri [present day Bayelsa State] in 1956. So how to be great was not the question if not when the greatness will manifest for all to behold.

Though this is not to say that the colonial masters who were to hand over power were comfortable with it, they would have taken the alternative route if there was any. Prior independence, there has been attendant problems in the polity; starting with the forced amalgamation of 1914, ethnic contestations, isolation from control of resources, estrangement from politics, minority agitations, communal clashes, electoral fraud, leap for hegemony, forced labour, divide and rule, expropriation of surplus value and notably exploitation. All of these [and many more] which would soon haunt the „newly born‟ child at infancy were majorly the reasons why different nationalist groups, interest groups and finally political parties sprang up with the sole of aim of displacing „those‟ responsible for our backwardness and alienation.

Well, with independence when the Nigerian will be in charge of Nigeria, all of these issues and anomalies should be reviewed and compromise reached [at least that was the thinking].

Nigerians should be able to sit and discuss „Project-Nigeria‟, reach a consensus among various major ethnic groups on a way to run the country with the minority groups not left out or feeling inferior, find a way to lay to rest manifestations of ethnic chauvinism, tribalism, nepotism, regionalism, electoral wars, political rivalry, revenue allocation and resource distribution problems, succession, economic mismanagement, political instability, and lay the foundation for national cohesion ridden with harmony, cooperation and unity.

Instead of the above what was experienced after independence was a clear departure. The country, barely a decade after Nigeria‟s freedom from the whims and caprices of colonialism was bombarded with a myriad of complications which eventually culminated into coup-d‟état when the military took over political power; followed by a counter coup and eventually civil war! That was how the path to a shattered dream was set wherein dependence on the former colonial masters and her allies became a norm. The performance of the state actors have thus been characterized by selfish interests which plunged the country into a „rentier‟ state branded by externalization, import-substitution, socio-economic and political inequalities, and a disarticulated economy.

As Rodney (1973) puts it, African economies are integrated into the very structure of the developed capitalist economies; and they are integrated in a manner that is unfavourable to Africa and ensures that Africa is dependent on the big capitalist countries. Indeed, structural dependence is one of the characteristics of underdevelopment. Most progressive writers divide the capitalist/imperialist system into two parts. The first is the dominant or metropolitan section and the countries in the second group are often called satellites because they are in the orbit of the metropolitan economies. The same idea is conveyed by simply saying that the underdeveloped countries are dependencies of the metropolitan capitalist economies.

A tenable argument offered for the above by the Nigeria state actors is that the state has been underdeveloped by the colonial masters. They argue that underdevelopment as inflicted by colonialism is responsible for the spate of lack of development presently experienced; that the economy of the state has been tied to that of the European nations in a periphery-center relationship whereby the periphery has come to be an outpost of the center. Thus, development as dreamt by the founding fathers is more of a mirage. Various scholars have written to justify Africa and Nigeria‟s backwardness as a byproduct of underdevelopment. As defensible and logical as this may sound and is, there is still a missing link of what role has been played or not played by Africans and Nigerians [in particular] in banishing the vestiges of underdevelopment or in ensuring its furtherance as the case may be. In their explanations, such scholars and writers put forward adequate theories to capture the theme of underdevelopment and two of such theories [modernization and dependency] will be appraised before reviewing the actions and inactions of African, nay Nigerian leaders in dealing with underdevelopment.

Rodney (1973) admitted the above observation when he says “not only are there African accomplices inside the imperialist system, but every African has a responsibility to understand the system and work for its overthrow”.

Causes of underdevelopment in Nigeria, effects & solutions

Nigeria is a wonderful country with a huge population and endless natural resources. It has enough potential to become a great nation. However, the country is struggling with the problem of underdevelopment, which is not a good thing, because there are many unpleasant factors contributing to it. Here, you can read about the causes of underdevelopment in Nigeria, and the possible ways to resolve all the issues.

What are the causes of underdevelopment in Nigeria?

Even though Nigeria is a bright country with massive perspectives for growth, the reasons for underdevelopment underdevelopment in Nigeria are clearly evident. The problems of underdevelopment in Nigeria are responsible for our way of life, which is lower than average. How can the causes of underdevelopment be dealt with in Nigeria? Let’s discuss the solutions to the problems of underdevelopment in Nigeria.

  1. Corruption The initial problem in the Nigerian everyday life is, of course, corruption. It is such a huge issue that has affected almost every area of life in the country and deprives us of growth. It feels like no matter which political leader we will choose, the result will be the same – they will not care much about improving the lives of Nigerians. There are a lot of politicians who steal the funds that are meant for various projects related to country development and put them on their personal bank accounts. If you look at the lavish lifestyle of many politicians, it becomes clear that apart from their official salary, they also take the funds from the national reservoir. There were efforts to fight corruption in Nigeria and a lot of initiatives supported by the government. There was a re-enactment of certain laws, and also many integrity systems were enforced. But none of those have brought significant success. To beat corruption, people should start with changing themselves and their outlook on society. The “leading by example” strategy can also be helpful – we need to have strong leaders who would show with their own example that corruption is wrong. Nowadays, many countries are fighting the corruption problem by electing the government that made a promise to implement a reform against this toxic practice, and we should follow their example as well. Combating tribalism and getting more united as a nation is also a way to success.
  2. Unfavourable business conditions

There is one thing that helps the nation to grow and develop, and this thing is business. The successful and developed country needs to have a large number of industries, which are also of high quality. It is impossible to contribute to the development of the country without the existence of the industries. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, there are no suitable conditions for the long-running industries. This is mainly because every industry is in need of constant and steady supply of power and it is barely available in the country. The solution to this problem will be, of course, the stabilization of power and water supplies. If these issues are dealt with, it will be more possible to attract investors from the country and outside it.

  1. Dependence on oil

Nigeria is a country which is almost fully dependent on the oil sector. Since there are major supplies of oil in Nigeria, which contribute to the general income of the country, there are other economic sectors that are left without proper development. For example, such sectors as tourism and agriculture are really abandoned compared to oil. This puts a lot of limitations on the revenue potential of Nigeria because the country is unable to take up a lot of projects related to its development. If the tourism sector was in better condition, it could possibly attract investors from outside the country and the foreign visitors, but this sphere is much neglected nowadays. This way, Nigeria is developing slower than it should, seeing how there is a lot of natural resources. The solution is simple – the agricultural sector, as well as the tourism sector, should be given more attention and care. The development of these sectors will mean that there will be enough revenue for carrying out the much-needed projects, directed at the improvement of Nigeria’s everyday life and solutions.

  1. Unemployment

This problem is very serious because if not enough people are employed, their contribution to the country’s development will slow down. The youth are unable to find jobs because of the high requirements and lack of work. Not only the young people but also the older people who find it difficult to find a job are left unemployed when their knowledge and skills could have been extremely useful in the growth and development of Nigeria. Due to the unemployment rates, the GDP of Nigeria keeps reducing every year, which is one of the effects of underdevelopment in our country. The solution to this problem would be easier than it seems – more job opportunities have to be created for the youth. The problem of corruption should also be dealt with because it exists in large amounts in the job market and is closely connected to the unemployment rates.

5. Poor government policy implementation

There are a lot of policies in Nigeria that are technically supposed to improve the life of the local residents. They all look great on paper, but in practice, they have very little actual implementation. The result of it is the untimely ending of many projects that were designed for development because they have not moved on anywhere from the paperwork level. Government should take it under its own responsibility and watch over these policies, making sure that they were implemented and did not just stay on paper. It is the problem that the government should take immediate care of because there are so many potential improvements and so little implementation.

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Marketing can be described as any activity that is carried on with the specific purpose of conveying information about the use, quality and value of a product or service in order to promote or sell the product or service. Marketing is the way to announce the availability of a commodity, service, idea or a brand to the world in such a way that people are interested in it and wish to acquire it and use it. It serves the purpose of plugging the gap between the public’s requirement and the products that are available.


The Marketing Department is the key to good marketing and sales. It promotes and establishes a business in its niche, based on the products or services the business is offering. It identifies the areas in which the product fits and where the business should focus its marketing strategy and, therefore, spend its budget for the maximum coverage and results. The marketing department helps a business to do the following:

  • Build relationship with the audience: Creates awareness of the business and its products as well as provide inputs that create interest for the audience. It brings in new customers and creates new business opportunities for the enterprise.
  • Involve the customer: It engages existing customers, tries to understand them and hear what they have to say. It monitors the competition, creates new ideas, identifies outlets, plans the strategy to involve customers and retain them.
  • Generate income: Finally, the aim of the marketing department is to generate revenue. All its activities are aimed at broadening the customer base and finding opportunities that would create more revenue for the enterprise.


The marketing department of any enterprise is responsible for promoting the products, ideas and mission of the enterprise, finding new customers, and reminding existing customers that you are in business. It organizes all the activities that are concerned with marketing and promotion. It may consist of a single person or a group of people working in a hierarchal system who are responsible for bringing the product of the business to the attention of its targeted customers. Since this department is the key to your revenue and business activity, it requires people who have the skills for dealing with people and understanding what they require.


  1. Listening to customer needs

To establish a marketing strategy, it’s necessary to get closer to the clients and listen in order to find out what their needs are. It’s a marketing department task, to plan the necessary means for receiving customer feedback:

  1. Track trends and monitor competition

Similar to the previous point, it’s important to know the position of the company regarding the market and the competition. That’s why from marketing, you must watch the competition to learn what they do best or to identify their mistakes in order to avoid falling into them.

  1. Work and brand values

Conceptually, a brand is a representation of the feelings that the products, services and company shares show. The marketing department is responsible for creating and disseminating images, messages and ideas that best communicate the brand values.

  1. Searching for new (and helpful) marketing’ tools

Been updated in all what concerns the marketing field is a must. That’s why as marketers we should be conscious about the new trends, strategies and digital tools that arise by the time.

Nowadays there are three types of marketing tools that must have a presence in every marketing department:

  1. Coordinate efforts with those of the marketing partners of the company

Around the business’s marketing there are lots of contributors: publishers, designers, journalists, consultants… The work of these contributors must be aligned with the objectives of the company, and is the department itself who should control it to do so.

  1. Innovate

Customers need to be surprised, and every day, given the higher offer, they are more demanding with this. The marketing department should work on new promotions, affiliate programs, customer retention techniques, improvements in the conversion of their messages and actions…

It’s not a matter of inventing entirely different disruptive actions; you’ll find innovation in the small details and in the continuous improvement.

  1. Communicate with the rest of the company

A company is a chain of members pursuing a common goal: to fulfil its mission and maximize its profits, while respecting the principles of business ethics.

A chain is as weak as its weakest link. It doesn’t matter that the commercial or production department are doing an impeccable job, if the marketing department fails, the entire company will fail and the efforts of other departments will be in vain. That is why the marketing department must ensure that their actions are aligned with the overall objectives of the company and that they report the work they are doing.

  1. Help improve sales processes and customer

As mentioned above, it’s the responsibility of the marketing department to know the users and especially the customers’ feelings. A good way for better knowing the customer is that all departments that have more direct contact with the customer shall be working with the empathy maps.

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A business manager is responsible for managing a company’s activities and its workers. Smaller companies depend on business managers to make sure that employees are working towards the aims of the business.

In large corporations, business managers report to top executives. In a small company, however, the manager will either own the business or report directly to the owner.

The term ‘business manager’ may also refer to a business agent – the person who manages the business affairs of a person such as an actor, athlete, author, or musician.


In many businesses, the role may be established to relieve the owner of responsibility, in order to focus on specific aspects of company expansion. Typically, the business manager and the owner work may work in synergy to ensure successful running of business. Having a specialization in a particular field, such as sales, marketing, public relations or finance would aid efficiency, yet despite the academic qualities a business manager should have, they should also develop personal qualities that will be helpful in performing the role efficiently.

A business manager should be willing to accept constructive criticism from employees, develop social skills, be organized, honest and able to take good decisions. A good business manager should be willing to work along his or her employees in order to create a better work environment.



In order to be an effective manager, you need to be able to lead your employees in an efficient manner. A lot of responsibility comes with being a manager, and being able to lead a team is required.


If you don’t have experience working in a professional environment and leading a team, it will be hard to step up as a manager. A great way to gain experience in a management role is to volunteer, either within your field or with a nonprofit. Ask to help manage and produce events, whether it’s raising money for an organization or organizing an event.


Being able to communicate with your team is required when being an effective manager. This not only means communicating job responsibilities and expectations, it means listening to your team and working with them to produce results within their position.


Experience as a manager is a must but so is knowledge. There are many different degrees offered for managers, including a bachelor’s degree in business or a master’s degree in leadership or project management. You can also get a certificate in project management, entrepreneurship, ethics, or human resource management.


If you aren’t organized in your position, there’s a good chance that the employees you manage won’t be either. There are many resources online that can inspire you to get organized. You can also buy a personal planner or download an app on your phone that can remind you of meetings, tasks you need to complete every day, etc.

Time Management

Another key factor in being a successful manager is time management. If you’re late every day, your employees might think it’s acceptable to also be late. Time management is also important when it comes to prioritizing your day, making sure you have time to communicate with your employees, and accomplishing goals throughout the week.


A manager that is leading a team has to be reliable. This means being available for your employees, getting things done that you said you would, and supporting your team however needed.


If you don’t know how to delegate projects and tasks, your role as a manager will be a lot more difficult. Don’t be afraid to ask your employees to help complete a task. You might think it’s easier to do everything yourself, but this will add more time to your already busy schedule, and you won’t be allowing your employees to do what they were hired to do.


To be an effective manager, you need to be confident in your abilities, experience, and decisions. This doesn’t mean you have to be arrogant or feel that you’re better than your employees. But you’re in a management role for a reason, so be proud and be an inspiration to your team.

Respect for Employees

If you don’t respect your employees, there will definitely be tension in your workplace. Be cognizant of their time and abilities, be able to listen and communicate with them, and be a resource of knowledge and guidance.


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Let me remind you once again, the one thing first class students have more than you is the First-Class mindset, trust me, it can’t be beaten. Once you have that mindset working towards it looks easy. I know this is not the case for average students, some average students had that mindset leaving home too but they end up retreating in the institution. That’s also a case, you can pick the vibe back. You just have to want to. Re-Focus, re-purpose and you will join that revered league. Consistency is an important aspect of learning and the outcome you achieve will at least, commensurate with the input you had, if done right.

So, let’s see other attitudes the first-class students have:


We discussed aiming higher in the above section, that might not be possible without CA (Continuous Assessment). Some schools or colleges have the principle of failing students who do not have C.A record. Sometimes, it’s akind of a personal thing for the lecturer, whatever case it may be, never miss any C.A or let me say make sure you have a C.A record, this is very important. It is a source of compassion when upgrading marks. It is easy to fail a student because of the absence of CA marks than it is with someone with a CA however weak. Cumulatively, C.As carry up to 30 marks. WHAT? 30 marks? Yes, that’s a lot of mark not to joke with and in some cases it can be up to 40 marks.

30 marks? Yes, that’s a lot of mark!

When you aim for “A” and you score let’s say 15 in your C.A, your work becomes easier in the exam but imagine not having C.A record at all and aiming for “A”, as possible as that might still be, it takes a lot more effort more than usual to achieve. Like scoring 70/70 in your exam. 70! not 69 not 69.5 but 70! Hmm, that’s something a first-class student would not risk. Don’t risk it too.


This is what the first-class student don’t and never do. Don’t underestimate any course. Some student tends to ignore the importance of a course sometimes because of the simplicity of the course at the beginning of the semester or how simple it looks even in the middle of the semester, this is not good. Some courses look very easy in class until you are left with it inside the exam hall. Sometimes they are very easy as they seem but trust me, lecturers do know how to make easy courses seem complex in both CA and exams. You have to beat the underestimation spirit before it finishes you. How to beat it? Practise past questions, do all class exercises and assignments, even more, make sure they are as simple as they look in the class right in your brain. Don’t overlook them for any reasons.

Another reason why students underestimate some courses is because of the credit unit assigned to them. For example, students tend to pay more attention to 3 credit unit courses than the 2 credits and also more attention on 2 credits than the 1 credits. This may not be a bad thing if you know what you are doing. However, it is risky, while 3 credit unit courses are heavier on GP scale than 2 and 1 for sure and should be treated with more attention, it doesn’t make the rest courses less important. Infact, methinks they are as important to pass as the 3 credit unit courses too. Don’t underestimate courses because of their assigned credit units. 2 credit unit can take away a point from your CGPA if care is not taken.


It is an easy trap to think “I can do XYZ tomorrow” or “I’ll finish X after this event” and suddenly realize two weeks have gone by. Avoid this trap by scheduling time into your day that is dedicated to your learning! This time maybe after lunch or before dinner. You might put aside 30 minutes in the evening. However, it fits into your life, be sure to schedule it there. This will ensure that it pops up like a regular reminder: time to revise a course, time to prepare for supervisor meeting, time to submit my project for assessment etc. Don’t do things randomly, otherwise, you see random results.


Have faith in your abilities, don’t allow anybody to discourage or scare you by telling you they will not give you first class. But truly first class is not given but earned. Always have a dream of being the best in whatever you come to do in life and give it your best shot at pursuing this dream. Believe you can do it if others can, you wouldn’t know what you are capable of until you try it.


As they say, work hard and pray even harder. You can’t do it alone. Pray to God in whatever language you can and by the teachings of whatever religion you endorse. No doubt, in many cases, prayer had proven to be an effective way of achieving goals BUT when accompanied intentionally with some work. So, put in the hard work and pray. You might think you got it all figured out. Remember it’s not by giving back the marking scheme as your answer. You might give back your answers in the best of forms (i.e as close to the marking scheme) but your result get missing. Those unpredictable cause of failure after hard work are best left with God. So pray, pray and pray.

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