Kogi State was formed August 29th, 1991. Ever since the amalgamation of various tribes in the state, it has evolved into a strong entity on its own. The three major tribes, covers people of Igala in the eastern part Ebira in central which Okun is in the west which includes Ebira-koto Ebasa Cakanda and Oworo, It is important to understand that these groups have lived together in peace and fostering cross social and economic integration among themselves, these includes, trade and cultural numeration and even marriages .
Kogi state is highly blessed with various mineral deposits. Which include the dispute oil rich region along Ibaji, Anabra other are Iron ore, line stones, dolomites, different class of precious stones, gems, large area of land fertile the farming and agri-business, various dams across the state also lives it advantage in the area irrigation in agriculture production and mater supply to the citizens. All these have position the state in way it can stand on it own if properly harness to help in the area of IGR for the state.
Kogi state is strategically placed in such a way that its like the epicenter of Nigeria as most traveling across Nigeria (North, South, West and East ) pass through the state to get to their destination. This also serves as economic advantage for the state, as most travelers always stop to do some kind of business, transaction in the state while transit.


The state was formed in 1991 from parts of Benue state and Kwara state.
Prince Adubakar Audu was twice the governor of kogi state. His first tenure was from January 1992 until November 1993 and the second from may 29 1999 to may 29 2003
Major achievements; his social-economic contribution in the state is to date a point of references to the generality of the people and aspiring leaders some of his major achievement during his brief first term of office includes the establishment of three different housing units in Lokoja, the transformation of Lokoja township with Asphalt road, street light Aesthetic roundabout the construction of inter township and rural roads over 75 electric scheme and 50 water project other achievements includes, the founding of kogi state polytechnic, the establishment of television station, radio station, a state newspaper, the establishment of kogi state university Ayigba
On May 2003 Ibrahim Idris was elected as a governor of kogi state on the platform of PDP in April 2003, took the oath of office on 29 May 2003. Idris was re-elected in April 2007, but later in the year his re-election was nullified on the grounds that the independent national electoral commission. In a re-election held on March 29, 2008 Idris was returned as the governor of kogi state.
After the tenure of former governor, Governor Ibrahim Idris and Captain Idris Wada becomes the governor in the year 2012 and he is the present governor of kogi state.

Presently, political parties lack sustainability of ideologies and internal democracy as a result of the following problems.
 Gross indiscipline among politician; many political parties suffers setback other misconduct among party members.
 Anti-party practice; politician would go miles to achieve personal interest, many of them go into alliance with political structures outside their party to achieve personal interest thereby they jettison their parties interest.
 Absence of party philosophy and ideology; one way by which political parties have greatly been divided is that they lack the philosophical ground upon which to build attainable party ideologies and in some other case (s) they totally lack party ideology.
 Communication gap within political parties; to be un-informed is to be deformed, many political parties lack propel means of communicating party interest or views to members of their political party which was greatly affected sustainability of party ideology.
 Appropriate punishment for defaulters, politicians go against party rule and regulation at will, because the practice of punishment is lacking among political parties.


Clearly from the context of this research work the aim and objective of the study among others is to reveal the party system and the advancement of democracy in kogi state.
However the following are some of the specific objectives that the project is designed to achieve.
 To ascertain properly the impact of party system formation and the advancement of democracy in kogi state
 The study also helps to bring out the problem and system of political party formation in kogi state.
 To determine how party activities will promote state development and state unity.
 To know the influence of parties on the quality of leaders in kogi state democracy
 Lastly proper solution by way of recommendation on how party system formation can improve democracy in kogi state.

This research work is aimed at finding solution to the problems of party discipline in kogi state democracy. Most writers on kogi state polities have highlighted certain factors as being impediment to the smooth operation of democracy in kogi state.
However very little have been done in terms of research towards trawling a close affinity between the mode of political party formation and political institutions.
The researches will also carry out analysis on the cause of democratic problems in kogi state. The number of political association and other behavior on the ability of kogi state body political will also be ascertained.
After taking into recognizing the factors that have being attributed as being problematic to sustainable democracy in Nigeria, recommendations will be aimed at putting to a half the frequency formation and dissolution of political parties or so to say, the raid and unconstitutional changes of development will be recounted. Therefore creating and enables environment where democracy can sustain.
Intellectually, this project will broader our horizon on political party system all as a problems force towards conducting further research on the significance of political party and into determine role in the stability of political system.
Finally, it is commented to all those who are concerned are committed to national socio-economic and political development, stability and peaceful existence of democracy system in kogi state.

This research project, however, will setback on a comparative analysis between formation of political parties and party discipline in kogi state, this study will cover kogi state the period of 1991-2015.
In the cause of the study, certain impediments are observed. This includes compromise attitude of the respondent to respond properly to the question posed by the researcher for the purpose of generating the required data.
Financial constraint was also another problem that affects investigation to this study shortage of funds for instance had little the number of the researchers could visit information sits for required information.
Finally, inadequately material in the library for consultation these constraints hindered the efficiency and effectiveness of the study.

A research question is defined as a interactive statement which a research needs to verify.
A research question is the methodological point of departing of scholarly research in both in the natural science and humanity.
This research intend to verify the following question
What are the effect of part information and the advancement of democracy in kogi state?
What are the factors militating against the party system formation in kogi state democracy.
Does ethnic class interest constitute problem to kogi state democracy.
To what extend can this prevailing problem be reduced?

This research work comprise of five chapters.
Chapter one deals with the formation of political parties and party discipline, the sustain able of democracy, challenges of good governance and solution to the problem of party system formation in kogi state from the period of 1991-2005
Chapter two deals with the problems of instituting a stability and democratically elected form of government and a theoretical Kane work to facilitate a better and cleared understanding of the analysis, and party discipline in Nigeria.
Chapter three deal with survey research method adopted in this project and the collection of data.
Chapter four deals with the presentation of data collection through questionnaires in order to analyze them using percentage %
Chapter five deal with the summary and recommendation. Several reference, Appendix Research Questionnaires.

The following terms will be needed for time to time in this study. For this reason the definition will be given in relating to their meaning and how they are going to be used in this write up.
Pluralist Society, Political Instability, Transmission, Ethnicity.

A plural society is a society divided by segmental in terms of religious, ideological, linguistic, regional, cultural, racial and ethnic in nature. A further characteristic is the political parties, interest groups. Median of communications, schools and naturally associations tend to be organized along the line of sentimental challenges.
In relation to this project on the characteristic possessed by a political stable democratic regime and their it has a high probability of remaining democratic and that it has a low level of actual and potential civil violence.
Oxford advanced learners dictionary of current English puts the terms the change from on condition or set of circumstance to another “transmission” in the context of this paper would be planned down especially to democratic transition. This however further begins or required the definition of democratic transmission.
Democratic transmission therefore is said to be systematic process of changes in the political institution and process based on the rule of democracy.
This is a common and sensitive term that has continually featured in the works of contemporary writer in Nigeria more or Elise on Africa political issues. It is factor that has emphatically being attributed as a stumbling block in smooth operation of democracy in our society.
Most of states today comprise of people from different ethnic groups. Nigeria is about 250 ethnic groups and in kogi state the three major tribes covers the people of Igala, Ebira, and Okun people. An ethnic groups can be regarded as a collection culture, his Koryi, language and ancestral origin and in habit a particular geographical area of a society even though they travel out to other area. Ethnicity therefore is defined as an individual or group of behavior debased on ethnic group differentiation usually in a competitive situation. In the process of these interactions, the members of particular ethnic group perceive themselves a “us and see others as them”
Party discipline is the ability of a parliamentary group of a political party to get its members to support the polities of their party with are exception the practice of party discipline means that members of the same party vote together in parliament since the emergence of structured political parties in the late 19th century, party discipline in some know has been an essential feature of the Canadian political landscape.
The practice of party discipline serves two purposes
 It provide a degree of ideological certainty upon which voter can rely
 It ensure that government and opposition sides in parliament are clearly democratic

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